Happy Diwali!!!

Posted on | November 4, 2010 | No Comments

Wanted Web and Graphic Designer

Posted on | October 6, 2010 | No Comments

Are you?

  • Someone that can create visually stunning graphics, slice them into w3
    compliant CSS and integrate them into existing websites, blogs and forums?
  • Someone that WOWs others with your creativity and can take web design to
    the next level?
  • Someone that is able to work under pressure, develop new concepts and is
    extremely proficient at handling multiple projects?
  • Someone enjoys producing a full brand identity ranging from web, print,
    social media and email marketing?
  • Someone that is ready to work for an upbeat company that offers great
    benefits, a great work environment and who performs well in a team
    atmosphere?

These are the duties for which you’ll be responsible

  • Designing, managing, and updating Afxisi’s online properties.
  • Creating print graphics for marketing initiatives including booth
    graphics, flyers, brochures, logos, business cards, and other types of media
    needed.
  • Creating clean semantic HTML + CSS for web projects.
  • Coordinating ongoing branding efforts in collaboration with marketing
    team.
  • Participating in ongoing marketing plan and projects associated with
    this.
  • Meeting deadlines through project management.
  • Fixing bugs and problems with Afxisi properties.
  • Adhering to, developing, and maintaining consistent use of corporate
    brand policy.
  • Identifying and suggesting improvements to Afxisi websites.
  • Exercising due diligence in testing code in all browsers before released
    to public.
  • Managing design/User Interface for all customer portals.

These are the skills, requirements, and experience we require

  • Creative ability – able to generate new and unique design concepts.
  • Teamwork skills – able to work effectively as part of a team.
  • Project Management skills – able to take ownership of assigned projects
    from beginning to end.
  • Written Communication – able to communicate effectively in all written
    work.
  • Time Management – able to use time effectively in an unsupervised
    fashion, pursuing other activities when regular duties have reduced volume;
  • Planning/Organizing skills – able to prioritize and plan work
    activities.
  • Adaptability – able to adapt to changes in the work environment, manage
    competing demands and able to deal with frequent change, delays or
    unexpected events.
  • Computer knowledge – computer proficiency, which includes knowledge of
    word processing and spreadsheet software; strong knowledge of electronic
    communication systems; able to navigate internet competently.
  • Problem solving skills – able to identify and resolve problems in a
    timely manner, gather and analyze information skillfully; able to apply
    independent judgement on regular basis in making decisions.

Technical skills – technical skills which include:

  • expert knowledge in the use of design concepts (layout, typography,
    color, white space, and grid.
  • understanding of print concepts (bleed, resolution, and color).
  • working knowledge of general web hosting principles and practices (bandwith,
    FTP, Domains/Subdomains, System Administration).
  • expert knowledge of Photoshop, Illustrator, and coding application.
  • awareness of emerging web, design, and social trends and techniques.
  • awareness of user centered design process and methods.

Must have online portfolio! Please do not submit a resume without being able to demonstrate current skills through online portfolio.

EEO Statement
At our company, we take great pride in our diverse and talented workforce.
We recognize that our continued success as a company depends largely on the
collective strengths of our employees. We recruit, hire, train and promote
persons in all job titles and ensure that all other personnel actions are
administered without regard to an employee’s race, color, religion, national
origin, gender, age, sexual identity, veteran status or disability. Privacy is a
very serious matter for Afxisi Technology Services (P) Ltd & Afxisi USA LLC; all
information submitted is kept internally and is never shared with third parties.

Apply by
E-mail:
hr@afxisi.com

Wanted PHP Programmers

Posted on | October 1, 2010 | No Comments

if (you == awesome web programmer) {
contact Afxisi(now);
}

Afxisi is seeking an outstanding web programmer with skills in varied programming languages including PHP, content management systems like Drupal and Joomla, and a desire to collaborate on a range of exciting projects.

The Afxisi Team is an enthusiastic bunch, brimming with creativity and eager to work on diverse projects from content management system integration and extension to mobile app development and interactive desktop applications. We work on complex projects where we can expand and show off our creative and development capabilities. And we make the world a better place by working on projects focused on education and advocacy.

As a web programmer with Afxisi, you will be an integral part of our tight-knit team, helping develop concepts and building innovative web solutions. You will work on multiple projects, each with its own technical considerations, goals and deadlines. And you will be collaborating with designers, illustrators and developers as part of team that brings complex projects to life.

You will work side-by-side with our design and development team in a collaborative environment. We have a lot of Afxisi Happy Fun Time (we embrace the good times so much that we’ve branded it) with a group of self-starters who work and play well together.

We’re looking for someone who:
* Has at least 3 years of web development experience in PHP, especially including Drupal, Jomala, WordPress
* Will thrive in a workplace where each new project requires a new thought process and solution
* Eagerly explores and learns new technologies
* Participates in the developer community to continually improve skills

In addition, these knowledge of the following would be ideal:
* PHP, ROR
* Database development for MySQL

Apply by
Email: hr@afxisi.com
Please include: Current Resume, sample schematics, and salary history

Surprising lawsuits involving privacy in the workplace

Posted on | September 21, 2010 | No Comments

Shoars vs. Epson
An employee was fired for refusing to participate in her supervisor’s monitoring of employee e-mail. She sued for wrongful termination, relying on a California state law that prohibits electronic surveillance. The court held that the statute’s protections did not extend to e-mail.

Bourke vs. Nissan Motors Corp
Nissan fired an employee for sending personal messages (some containing sexual content) through the company e-mail system. Bourke sued for wrongful termination, claiming invasion of privacy. The court denied his claim on the grounds that Bourque had no reasonable expectation that his E-mail was private.

Smythe vs. The Pillsbury Co.
A Pillsbury employee was fired after the company intercepted “inappropriate and unprofessional comments” that the employee had made to his supervisor over the company e-mail system. The Pillsbury Company had repeatedly assured its employees that all e-mail communications would remain confidential and privileged, and that it would not intercept e-mail or use it as grounds for termination.
Smythe was still fired and the court backed Pillsbury.

Huffcut vs. McDonald’s
McDonald’s employee Michael Huffcut began an extramarital affair with an assistant manager at a McDonald’s in a neighboring town.The couple left messages of a sexual nature on each other’s voice mail, which was part of a system linking a dozen franchises. A McDonald’s manager retrieved the couple’s messages and played them to Huffcut’s wife and his boss. The multi-million dollar case is still in litigation.M

In Bohach vs. City of Reno
Reno police officers sent messages to one another over the Reno Police Department’s message system. Faced with an internal affairs investigation based upon the contents of the messages, the officers filed suit. They alleged that the storage of the messages by the Department’s computer network and the subsequent retrieval of those messages from the computer’s files constituted, among other things, violations of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act. The officers were overruled.

Technology Law
E-mail’s popularity poses workplace privacy problems

Electronic mail messages are fast becoming the communications vehicle of choice for much of corporate America.

E-mail is in use, in some capacity, in all Fortune 1000 companies, and it is expected that by the year 2000, 40 million e-mail users will be sending 60 billion e-mail messages a year.

While the efficiency and practicality of e-mail is a major benefit to most businesses, e-mail is not without its problems. For instance, can an employer legally monitor e-mail, and if so should it monitor e-mail? What impact does an employee’s unscrupulous use of employer-provided e-mall have on the employer?

What role will e-mail messages play in litigation? These are just a few of the questions that all employers should consider.

The Federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 generally prohibits the interception of electronic communications, including e-mail. However, three major exceptions to the ECPA may allow the interception of employee e-mail.

First, an employer can monitor employee e-mail where the employee has consented to monitoring. Consent can either be express, where the employee actually agrees to the monitoring, or implied, where the employee continues to use the employer’s e-mail system after being expressly informed that the employer intends to monitor e-mail.

It also states that the provider of electronic communication services is free to monitor communications when the monitoring is a necessary incident of the rendition of services or the protection of the rights or property of the provider.

The Electronic Mail Association has interpreted this exception to allow an employer to monitor all e-mail transmitted via an employer-provided system. Note that this exception would not apply to situations in which the employer simply provides the employee access to a commercial e-mail service.

Third, the ECPA provides that the interception of electronic communication is lawful if it is for a legitimate business purpose. Courts have taken two separate approaches to this exception. Under the first approach, an employer may monitor e-mail where the employee has been informed of the monitoring and it is necessary to protect the employer’s business interests.

The second approach examines the content of the intercepted communication. Under this approach an employer may intercept business related e-mails but not personal e-mails. An e-mail message is considered business related e-mail if it is a message in which the employer has a legal interest or the interception is necessarily to guard against the unauthorized use of the e-mail equipment.

A company will have a legal interest in an e-mail message when the message is either in pursuit of the employer’s business or is a detriment to the employer’s business.

An employer that wishes to leave open the opportunity of monitoring employee e-mail messages would be well advised to inform its employees that it reserves the right to monitor e-mail messages.

By informing employees, the employer will be in a stronger position to argue that its employees do not have a “reasonable expectation” of privacy in their e-mail messages and thus avoids having to rely on the court’s own notion of what privacy expectation is reasonable.

Once it has been decided that the employer can lawfully monitor employee e-mail, the tougher question becomes whether it is in the employer’s best interest to monitor. It might allow the employer to uncover inappropriate employee e-mail uses, but it also may scare them away from using the productivity enhancing tool.

The use or misuse of e-mail may also have a serious effect on litigation. While most e-mail users believe that once they have deleted an e-mail message it is gone forever, this is not the case.

Many high-tech firms have been formed for the sole purpose of recovering e-mail messages the sender thought had been erased. The founder of one such firm recently stated, “Don’t put anything in e-mail that you would not want read over the loud speaker throughout the company.” Sound advice.

An additional problem may arise with respect to attorney-client communications via e-mail. While there have yet to be any decisions on the effect of e-mail on the attorney-client privilege, at least one bar association has taken the position that e-mail may destroy it and has likened e-mail to cell phone calls.

It is clear that e-mail is here to stay. In order to use the tool effectively, corporate managers must be aware of the potential legal and practical problems accompanied by the use of e-mail. However, with proper planning and a good policy, e-mail can greatly enhance the productivity of most companies.

How to Select an ERP System When You’re Dead

Posted on | September 21, 2010 | No Comments

When Nietzsche declared in 1882 that “God is dead,” I’ll bet he had no idea that ERP system vendors were already queuing up to fill the gap.

He just wasn’t the practical, forward-thinking kind, that was his problem (Nietzsche, I mean, not God).

Now, in heaven, they take the long view. So when they started casting around for a replacement to their legacy system, they took the time to conduct a thorough software evaluation process.

Which meant, of course, defining their objectives first. I imagine the boardroom conversation went something like this:

“Lessee, now, we’ll be needing a strong CRM component—those help desk requests are really starting to clog up the system… and to be honest, our field reps could use some tighter linkage with head office, know what I’m sayin’?

“And as for accounting functionality, OK, now here’s the thing. Forecasting numbers are a little unreliable since the Big Unplug… plus, you should see some of the inventory management headaches we’re getting into—transubstantiation, schmansubstantiation, you ever try reconciling a holy trinity when one of ‘em’s dead, fer cryin’ out loud? And anyway we’re thinking of rebranding our bread product line. ‘Bi-weekly bread’, now that’s got more of a ring to it, don’t you think?

“Oh, and we’ll need some sort of RFID mechanism for the new soul transportation system—ha ha ha, remember that guy who smudged his bar code on the way up?”

Enough. For those of you who aren’t dead, I offer this roadmap to follow for software selection. It’s part of a best-practice software selection manual we’re publishing in the months ahead, and I invite you to share your thoughts—leave your comments below!

Phase One: Research
Define your objectives
Develop your business case
Identify your stakeholders
Interview your stakeholders
Select your project team leaders
Select your project champions
Select your subject-matter experts
Achieve consensus and develop your list of requirements
Create your long list of vendors
Disqualify unsuitable vendors and handle disputes
Send letters of continuation to selected vendors

Phase Two: Evaluation
Structure and prioritize your list of requirements
Finalize your list of requirements
Translate requirements into a decision model
Export your decision model to your RFI
Send your RFI
Create rules for extensions
Collect RFI responses
Incorporate vendor responses into decision model
Analyze, rationalize, assess, and rank the data
Validate and verify the data
Develop a working list of vendors
Create a ranked shortlist
Notify rejected vendors
Handle disputes

Phase Three: Selection
Select a shortlist of three vendors
Develop a demo script
Invite vendors to conduct demos
Invite vendors on-site to show them your environment
Perform reference checks
Issue an RFP to your shortlist
Analyze RFP responses
Conduct product demos
Perform user trials
Assess implementation proposal
Conduct a TCO analysis (pricing)
Analyze market data
Visit reference company sites
Quantify the subjective assessment
Revisit your analysis
Make your selection

Phase Four: Post-selection
Negotiate the contract
Obtain executive approval
Notify rejected vendors
Handle disputes
Notify the winning vendor
Sign the contract
Plan for implementation
Conduct installation and configuration (or migration)
Perform user testing
Develop due diligence report/audit
Go live

Wanted Interactive Content Writers – Freshers

Posted on | September 20, 2010 | No Comments

Afxisi’s one of its services as Social Compass, a leading social media marketing company is seeking several full-time interactive producers. The idealcandidates must have blogging experience, social media experience, and a successful track-record for building and engaging an audience.

They must be comfortable interacting with readers and be able to initiate a conversation. They must also have a strong presence on key social media sites. Interactive Producers will be expected to monitor blogs, send out email marketing campaigns, write eBooks, and publish multiple short posts on social networks.

Position Overview:
• Research trending ideas and topics
• Create content for our clients that will attract new readership
• Find renewable sources of unique ideas and inspiration and be able to take a concept from an idea stage to finished product.
• Write engaging and thoughtful content on other popular blogs, forums, and social networks relating to our clients products or services.
• Share research links, helpful to-dos, tips, specials, promotions and/or discounts that would be interesting to the readers in our clients’ online  communities.

Qualifications & Experience:
• Freshers
• Degree in English, or Journalism.
• Basic Computer Knowledge such as Word and PowerPoint
• An avid self-educator; constantly seeking out new knowledge
• An innovative thinker-able to blend unlikely subject material to create new engaging content.
• Able to be productive under tight deadlines
• A Time Management Expert
• Capable of working with little direction

Apply by
Email: hr@afxisi.com

Wanted Senior Asterisk Programmer

Posted on | September 20, 2010 | No Comments

Job Designation : Senior Asterisk Programmer

Qualification : B.E/ MS / M.Sc / M.C.A / M.E  in CS, CE, EE or equivalent.

Experience : 3+ yrs of work experience is required in Telecom domain.

Job Description :

3+ yrs of work experience is required in Telecom domain.
Experience with the Linux operating system – 3 Years (a must).
Experience with the Asterisk Open Source PBX – 2 Years (a must).
Experience with the following subjects – Networking, Security, Hardware.
Demonstrated experience in functional & objected oriented design.
Programming proficiency in C/ C++ & Java, also preferred C#, PERL or PHP.
Strong knowledge in the VoIP area such as H. 323, SIP, RTP/ RTCP, RFC28833 or Voice Quality algorithms is highly desirable.
Other desirable knowledge is experience with the VoIP stacks, call control experience, and packet processing experience.
Familiarity with hardware architecture and internals of at least one OS.
Excellent English verbal and written communication skills are must.
Strong analytic, troubleshooting and problem solving skills.

Responsibilities :
In these roles, the programmer will be responsible for developing & debugging customer required functionalities. Programmer should analyze requirements, create designs and implement it in software. The design and implementation will conform to best known practices and follow guidelines and coding standards. Programmer should also review the work of your peers and test, debug and enhance software. Additionally, you will perform software integration tasks and collaborate cross-functionally with other engineers. Should be Self-motivated, with ability to function as an individual contributor and provide technical leadership as required.

Mail in your cv to
hr@afxisi.com

A detailed primer on building cross platform mobile applications

Posted on | September 20, 2010 | 1 Comment

finally had a few hours tonight to wrap up my study on comparison of mobile application platforms that allow developing cross-device applications easily using familiar technologies. Here is a quick braindump of all the links and resources I went through -
Rhomobile
Google TechTalk on Rhodes – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2pztOky_L0
http://rhomobile.com/products/rhodes/
http://www.ultrasaurus.com/sarahblog/2009/07/cross-platform-mobile-apps-with-rhomobile/
http://www.rhohub.com/
Notes
Dual licensed. Though license is cheap – $500
Code is written in html and ruby (though a python interpreter would have gotten more smileys from me )
interesting approach – uses the native browser component of the cellphone itself to render the html and a web server to host the app – so javascript support will be random based on the phone browser support
sqlite support
Supports iphone, windows mobile, blackberry, android, Symbisn etc
Basically rhodes runs a mini ruby web server and an html rendering engine all in 2.3MB
Supports native capabilities like camera, gps, PIM data, SMS etc
Phone gap
http://phonegap.com/
Check the video on their site
Notes
Fully open source and free
Code written in html+javascript
Supports iphone, blackberry and android
Pyxis Mobile
http://pyxismobile.com/platform/technical-overview/
Build one configuration and deploy to BlackBerry, iPhone, and Windows Mobile all at the same time
Skinning, scripting, localized languages, complex workflow management, push, hotkeys, mapping & LBS, camera support, signature capture, GUI calendar, disambiguation, hotkeys, and much more
Titanium Mobile
http://www.appcelerator.com/products/titanium-mobile/
This is an upcoming mobile platform by appcelerator
I am quite familiar with the company since we already use their Titanium Desktop and have two fulltime contributors to it
Quick Connect
http://quickconnect.sourceforge.net/
Comparison sites and articles
http://blog.twinapex.fi/2009/09/30/cross-platform-mobile-application-development-and-payment/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_development
http://www.infoworld.com/d/open-source/building-native-mobile-applications-open-source-mobile-platforms-735
http://www.infoworld.com/d/mobilize/iphone-development-tools-work-way-you-do-309
http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-10202598-94.html
http://www.slideshare.net/inouemak/rhodes-and-phone-gap
http://techboise.com/multi-platform-mobile-development-and-quickconnect
Some others
http://quickconnect.pbworks.com/
http://www.mobinex.biz/smartface-platform.html
http://qt.nokia.com/products/qt-for-mobile-platforms
http://www.anscamobile.com/corona/

I finally had a few hours tonight to wrap up my study on comparison of mobile application platforms that allow developing cross-device applications easily using familiar technologies. Here is a quick braindump of all the links and resources I went through -

Rhomobile

http://rhomobile.com/products/rhodes/

http://www.ultrasaurus.com/sarahblog/2009/07/cross-platform-mobile-apps-with-rhomobile/

http://www.rhohub.com/

Notes

  • Dual licensed. Though license is cheap – $500
  • Code is written in html and ruby (though a python interpreter would have gotten more smileys from me )
  • interesting approach – uses the native browser component of the cellphone itself to render the html and a web server to host the app – so javascript support will be random based on the phone browser support
  • sqlite support
  • Supports iphone, windows mobile, blackberry, android, Symbisn etc
  • Basically rhodes runs a mini ruby web server and an html rendering engine all in 2.3MB
  • Supports native capabilities like camera, gps, PIM data, SMS etc

Phone gap

http://phonegap.com/

Check the video on their site

Notes

  • Fully open source and free
  • Code written in html+javascript
  • Supports iphone, blackberry and android

Pyxis Mobile

http://pyxismobile.com/platform/technical-overview/

  • Build one configuration and deploy to BlackBerry, iPhone, and Windows Mobile all at the same time
  • Skinning, scripting, localized languages, complex workflow management, push, hotkeys, mapping & LBS, camera support, signature capture, GUI calendar, disambiguation, hotkeys, and much more

Titanium Mobile

http://www.appcelerator.com/products/titanium-mobile/

  • This is an upcoming mobile platform by appcelerator
  • I am quite familiar with the company since we already use their Titanium Desktop and have two fulltime contributors to it

Quick Connect

http://quickconnect.sourceforge.net/

Comparison sites and articles

http://blog.twinapex.fi/2009/09/30/cross-platform-mobile-application-development-and-payment/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_development

http://www.infoworld.com/d/open-source/building-native-mobile-applications-open-source-mobile-platforms-735

http://www.infoworld.com/d/mobilize/iphone-development-tools-work-way-you-do-309

http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-10202598-94.html

http://www.slideshare.net/inouemak/rhodes-and-phone-gap

http://techboise.com/multi-platform-mobile-development-and-quickconnect

Some others

http://quickconnect.pbworks.com/

http://www.mobinex.biz/smartface-platform.html

http://qt.nokia.com/products/qt-for-mobile-platforms

http://www.anscamobile.com/corona/

Cloud Platform Providers that I am investigating

Posted on | December 18, 2009 | No Comments

With some free time on my hands, this week I am investigating various Cloud platform providers. The vendors I am reviewing are -
3Tera
Elastra
Zimory
Vmware
Cassatt
Datasynapse
Appistry
Eucalyptus
Citrix

With some free time on my hands, this week I am investigating various Cloud platform providers. The vendors I am reviewing are -

3Tera

Elastra

Zimory

Vmware

Cassatt

Datasynapse

Appistry

Eucalyptus

Citrix

The History Of the Internet

Posted on | December 17, 2009 | No Comments

If you’re reading this article, it’s likely that you spend a fair amount of time online. However, considering how much of an influence the Internet has in our daily lives, how many of us actually know the story of how it got its start?

Here’s a brief history of the Internet, including important dates, people, projects, sites, and other information that should give you at least a partial picture of what this thing we call the Internet really is, and where it came from.

Here’s a brief history of the Internet, including important dates, people, projects, sites, and other information that should give you at least a partial picture of what this thing we call the Internet really is, and where it came from.

While the complete history of the Internet could easily fill a few books, this article should familiarize you with key milestones and events related to the growth and evolution of the Internet between 1969 to 2009.

1969: Arpanet

Arpanet was the first real network to run on packet switching technology (new at the time). On the October 29, 1969, computers at Stanford and UCLA connected for the first time. In effect, they were the first hosts on what would one day become the Internet.

The first message sent across the network was supposed to be “Login”, but reportedly, the link between the two colleges crashed on the letter “g”.



1969: Unix


Another major milestone during the 60’s was the inception of Unix: the operating system whose design heavily influenced that of Linux and FreeBSD (the operating systems most popular in today’s web servers/web hosting services).

1970: Arpanet network

An Arpanet network was established between Harvard, MIT, and BBN (the company that created the “interface message processor” computers used to connect to the network) in 1970.

1971: E-mail

Email was first developed in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson, who also made the decision to use the “@” symbol to separate the user name from the computer name (which later on became the domain name).

1971: Project Gutenberg and eBooks

One of the most impressive developments of 1971 was the start of Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg, for those unfamiliar with the site, is a global effort to make books and documents in the public domain available electronically–for free–in a variety of eBook and electronic formats.

It began when Michael Hart gained access to a large block of computing time and came to the realization that the future of computers wasn’t in computing itself, but in the storage, retrieval and searching of information that, at the time, was only contained in libraries. He manually typed (no OCR at the time) the “Declaration of Independence” and launched Project Gutenberg to make information contained in books widely available in electronic form. In effect, this was the birth of the eBook.


1972: CYCLADES

France began its own Arpanet-like project in 1972, called CYCLADES. While Cyclades was eventually shut down, it did pioneer a key idea: the host computer should be responsible for data transmission rather than the network itself.
1973: The first trans-Atlantic connection and the popularity of emailing

Arpanet made its first trans-Atlantic connection in 1973, with the University College of London. During the same year, email accounted for 75% of all Arpanet network activity.

1974: The beginning of TCP/IP

1974 was a breakthrough year. A proposal was published to link Arpa-like networks together into a so-called “inter-network”, which would have no central control and would work around a transmission control protocol (which eventually became TCP/IP).

1975: The email client

With the popularity of emailing, the first modern email program was developed by John Vittal, a programmer at the University of Southern California in 1975. The biggest technological advance this program (called MSG) made was the addition of “Reply” and “Forward” functionality.

1977: The PC modem


1977 was a big year for the development of the Internet as we know it today. It’s the year the first PC modem, developed by Dennis Hayes and Dale Heatherington, was introduced and initially sold to computer hobbyists.

1978: The Bulletin Board System (BBS)

The first bulletin board system (BBS) was developed during a blizzard in Chicago in 1978.

1978: Spam is born

1978 is also the year that brought the first unsolicited commercial email message (later known as spam), sent out to 600 California Arpanet users by Gary Thuerk.

1979: MUD – The earliest form of multiplayer games

The precursor to World of Warcraft and Second Life was developed in 1979, and was called MUD (short for MultiUser Dungeon). MUDs were entirely text-based virtual worlds, combining elements of role-playing games, interactive, fiction, and online chat.

1979: Usenet

1979 also ushered into the scene: Usenet, created by two graduate students. Usenet was an internet-based discussion system, allowing people from around the globe to converse about the same topics by posting public messages categorized by newsgroups.

1980: ENQUIRE software

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (better known as CERN) launched ENQUIRE (written by Tim Berners-Lee), a hypertext program that allowed scientists at the particle physics lab to keep track of people, software, and projects using hypertext (hyperlinks).

1982: The first emoticon

While many people credit Kevin MacKenzie with the invention of the emoticon in 1979, it was Scott Fahlman in 1982 who proposed using :-) after a joke, rather than the original -) proposed by MacKenzie. The modern emoticon was born.

1983: Arpanet computers switch over to TCP/IP

January 1, 1983 was the deadline for Arpanet computers to switch over to the TCP/IP protocols developed by Vinton Cerf. A few hundred computers were affected by the switch. The name server was also developed in ‘83.

1984: Domain Name System (DNS)

The domain name system was created in 1984 along with the first Domain Name Servers (DNS). The domain name system was important in that it made addresses on the Internet more human-friendly compared to its numerical IP address counterparts. DNS servers allowed Internet users to type in an easy-to-remember domain name and then converted it to the IP address automatically.

1985: Virtual communities

1985 brought the development of The WELL (short for Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link), one of the oldest virtual communities still in operation. It was developed by Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant in February of ‘85. It started out as a community of the readers and writers of the Whole Earth Review and was an open but “remarkably literate and uninhibited intellectual gathering”. Wired Magazine once called The Well “The most influential online community in the world.”

1986: Protocol wars

The so-called Protocol wars began in 1986. European countries at that time were pursuing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), while the United States was using the Internet/Arpanet protocol, which eventually won out.

1987: The Internet grows

By 1987, there were nearly 30,000 hosts on the Internet. The original Arpanet protocol had been limited to 1,000 hosts, but the adoption of the TCP/IP standard made larger numbers of hosts possible.

1988: IRC – Internet Relay Chat

Also in 1988, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was first deployed, paving the way for real-time chat and the instant messaging programs we use today.

1988: First major malicious internet-based attack

One of the first major Internet worms was released in 1988. Referred to as “The Morris Worm”, it was written by Robert Tappan Morris and caused major interruptions across large parts of the Internet.

1989: AOL is launched

When Apple pulled out of the AppleLink program in 1989, the project was renamed and America Online was born. AOL, still in existence today, later on made the Internet popular amongst the average internet users.

1989: The proposal for the World Wide Web

1989 also brought about the proposal for the World Wide Web, written by Tim Berners-Lee. It was originally published in the March issue of MacWorld, and then redistributed in May 1990. It was written to persuade CERN that a global hypertext system was in CERN’s best interest. It was originally called “Mesh”; the term “World Wide Web” was coined while Berners-Lee was writing the code in 1990.

1990: First commercial dial-up ISP

1990 also brought about the first commercial dial-up Internet provider, The World. The same year, Arpanet ceased to exist.

1990: World Wide Web protocols finished

The code for the World Wide Web was written by Tim Berners-Lee, based on his proposal from the year before, along with the standards for HTML, HTTP, and URLs.

1991: First web page created

1991 brought some major innovations to the world of the Internet. The first web page was created and, much like the first email explained what email was, its purpose was to explain what the World Wide Web was.

1991: First content-based search protocol

Also in the same year, the first search protocol that examined file contents instead of just file names was launched, called Gopher.

1991: MP3 becomes a standard

Also, the MP3 file format was accepted as a standard in 1991. MP3 files, being highly compressed, later become a popular file format to share songs and entire albums via the internet.

1991: The first webcam

One of the more interesting developments of this era, though, was the first webcam. It was deployed at a Cambridge University computer lab, and its sole purpose was to monitor a particular coffee maker so that lab users could avoid wasted trips to an empty coffee pot.

1993: Mosaic – first graphical web browser for the general public

The first widely downloaded Internet browser, Mosaic, was released in 1993. While Mosaic wasn’t the first web browser, it is considered the first browser to make the Internet easily accessible to non-techies.

1993: Governments join in on the fun

In 1993, both the White House and the United Nations came online, marking the beginning of the .gov and .org domain names.

1994: Netscape Navigator

Mosaic’s first big competitor, Netscape Navigator, was released the year following (1994).

1995: Commercialization of the internet

1995 is often considered the first year the web became commercialized. While there were commercial enterprises online prior to ‘95, there were a few key developments that happened that year. First, SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption was developed by Netscape, making it safer to conduct financial transactions (like credit card payments) online.

In addition, two major online businesses got their start the same year. The first sale on “Echo Bay” was made that year. Echo Bay later became eBay. Amazon.com also started in 1995, though it didn’t turn a profit for six years, until 2001.

1995: Geocities, the Vatican goes online, and JavaScript

Other major developments that year included the launch of Geocities (which officially closed down on October 26, 2009).

The Vatican also went online for the first time.

Java and JavaScript (originally called LiveScript by its creator, Brendan Eich, and deployed as part of the Netscape Navigator browser – see comments for explanation) was first introduced to the public in 1995. ActiveX was launched by Microsoft the following year.

1996: First web-based (webmail) service

In 1996, HoTMaiL (the capitalized letters are an homage to HTML), the first webmail service, was launched.

1997: The term “weblog” is coined

While the first blogs had been around for a few years in one form or another, 1997 was the first year the term “weblog” was used.

1998: First new story to be broken online instead of traditional media

In 1998, the first major news story to be broken online was the Bill Clinton/Monica Lewinsky scandal (also referred to as “Monicagate” among other nicknames), which was posted on The Drudge Report after Newsweek killed the story.

1998: Google

Google went live in 1998, revolutionizing the way in which people find information online.

1998: Internet-based file-sharing gets its roots

In 1998 as well, Napster launched, opening up the gates to mainstream file-sharing of audio files over the internet.

1999: SETI@home project

1999 is the year when one of the more interesting projects ever brought online: the SETI@home project, launched. The project has created the equivalent of a giant supercomputer by harnessing the computing power of more than 3 million computers worldwide, using their processors whenever the screensaver comes on, indicating that the computer is idle. The program analyzes radio telescope data to look for signs of extraterrestrial intelligence.

2000: The bubble bursts

2000 was the year of the dotcom collapse, resulting in huge losses for legions of investors. Hundreds of companies closed, some of which had never turned a profit for their investors. The NASDAQ, which listed a large number of tech companies affected by the bubble, peaked at over 5,000, then lost 10% of its value in a single day, and finally hit bottom in October of 2002.

2001: Wikipedia is launched

With the dotcom collapse still going strong, Wikipedia launched in 2001, one of the websites that paved the way for collective web content generation/social media.

2003: VoIP goes mainstream

In 2003: Skype is released to the public, giving a user-friendly interface to Voice over IP calling.

2003: MySpace becomes the most popular social network

Also in 2003, MySpace opens up its doors. It later grew to be the most popular social network at one time (thought it has since been overtaken by Facebook).

2003: CAN-SPAM Act puts a lid on unsolicited emails

Another major advance in 2003 was the signing of the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003, better known as the CAN-SPAM Act.

2004: Web 2.0

Though coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, the term “Web 2.0″, referring to websites and Rich Internet Applications (RIA) that are highly interactive and user-driven became popular around 2004. During the first Web 2.0 conference, John Batelle and Tim O’Reilly described the concept of “the Web as a Platform”: software applications built to take advantage of internet connectivity, moving away from the desktop (which has downsides such as operating system dependency and lack of interoperability).

2004: Social Media and Digg

The term “social media”, believed to be first used by Chris Sharpley, was coined in the same year that “Web 2.0″ became a mainstream concept. Social media–sites and web applications that allow its users to create and share content and to connect with one another–started around this period.

Digg, a social news site, launched on November of 2004, paving the way for sites such as Reddit, Mixx, and Yahoo! Buzz. Digg revolutionized traditional means of generating and finding web content, democratically promoting news and web links that are reviewed and voted on by a community.

2004: “The” Facebook open to college students

Facebook launched in 2004, though at the time it was only open to college students and was called “The Facebook”; later on, “The” was dropped from the name, though the URL http://www.thefacebook.com still works.

2005: YouTube – streaming video for the masses

YouTube launched in 2005, bringing free online video hosting and sharing to the masses.

2006: Twitter gets twittering

Twitter launched in 2006. It was originally going to be called twittr (inspired by Flickr); the first Twitter message was “just setting up my twttr”.

2007: Major move to place TV shows online

Hulu was first launched in 2007, a joint venture between ABC, NBC, and Fox to make popular TV shows available to watch online.

2007: The iPhone and the Mobile Web

The biggest innovation of 2007 was almost certainly the iPhone, which was almost wholly responsible for renewed interest in mobile web applications and design.

2008: “Internet Election”

The first “Internet election” took place in 2008 with the U.S. Presidential election. It was the first year that national candidates took full advantage of all the Internet had to offer. Hillary Clinton jumped on board early with YouTube campaign videos. Virtually every candidate had a Facebook page or a Twitter feed, or both.

Ron Paul set a new fundraising record by raising $4.3 million in a single day through online donations, and then beat his own record only weeks later by raising $4.4 million in a single day.

The 2008 elections placed the Internet squarely at the forefront of politics and campaigning, a trend that is unlikely to change any time in the near future.

2009: ICANN policy changes

2009 brought about one of the biggest changes to come to the Internet in a long time when the U.S. relaxed its control over ICANN, the official naming body of the Internet (they’re the organization in charge of registering domain names).

The Future?

Where is the future of the Internet headed? Share your opinions in the comments section.

Sources and Further Reading

A People’s History of the Internet: from Arpanet in 1969 to Today: A timeline of the Internet from guardian.co.uk.

History of the Internet: An early timeline of the Internet, from precursors in the 1800s up through 1997.

A Brief History of the Web: A series of videos from Microsoft to celebrate the launch of Internet Explorer 8.

The History of the Internet – Tim Berners-Lee: A brief history of major developments associated with the Internet from About.com.

Hobbes’ Internet Timeline – the definitive ARPAnet & Internet History: A very thorough timeline of the Internet, starting in 1957 and going up through 2004, with tons of statistics and source material included.

Internet Timeline: A basic timeline of Internet history from FactMonster.com.

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